Session 20: RES Power Generation
The Spatial Diffusion of Photovoltaics in Germany
1URBANgrad - TU Darmstadt, Germany; 2External PhD candidate, chair of Prof. Dr. Carsten Helm, University of Oldenburg, Germany
In several countries, electricity produced by photovoltaics (PV) is subject to generous subsidies, especially in residential areas. The resulting investments in photovoltaic installations may depend on the subsidy level, spatial variations in global radiation, available installation space and the income level. Furthermore, we suppose that the knowledge and experience level regarding PV installations within a certain geographical unit, which can be measured by previously installed PV systems, determine the installation density. The purpose of this paper is to describe the evolution of photovoltaic installations quantitatively and to test if pre-existing photovoltaic systems stimulate further installations nearby. In order to do so, we develop and apply an econometric model, which can be used to describe the heterogeneous geographical diffusion of PV installations. The model is discrete in time and space, but the level of geographical agglomeration employed is adjustable in arbitrarily small steps. Our model may be used to study the diffusion of decentral renewable energy technologies in general. We employ a dataset covering PV installations in Germany until 2009 (some 550,000). Our analysis shows that the installation process is highly dependent on the geographic proximity of previous installations. This suggests that even strong subsidies do not immediately lead to the adoption of decentral renewable energy technologies. It takes several years until a wide diffusion is reached since knowledge and experience regarding the technology has to be built on the local level.
Low Voltage Ride Through Analysis of FSIG Based WECS with STATCOM
University of Cape Town
Among the renewable energy technologies being vigorously developed, Wind turbine technology has been undergoing a dramatic development and now is the world’s fastest growing energy. The continuous increase in wind power penetration level is likely to influence the operation of existing utility networks, especially the power system stability. Because of clean and economical characteristics, Wind energy is considered as one of the prospective energy sources of the future world. The present target is to achieve 12% generation of the world’s electricity fro, wind power by 2020. The new European Wind Energy Association scenario shows that by 2030, wind power could be satisfying 22% of Europe’s total electricity supply. From these predictions, it can be easily comprehended that a huge number of wind farms will be connected to the power system in the near future. Therefore it is essential to analyse the characteristics of wind generators during the network disturbances.
Wind Energy and Environmental Protection: Using GIS to Evaluate the Compatibility of Croatian Strategies
1HEP-Renewable Energy Sources Ltd., Croatia; 2Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Croatia; 3Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Univ. of Zagreb, Croatia
The objective of this paper is to show a methodology that could be applied in the analysis of the possibility of realization of wind projects in Croatia with regard to Croatian National Ecological Network (CRO NEN) sites and protected sites.
The analysis will provide a base model for initial evaluation of the compatibility of current Croatian wind energy and environmental protection objectives. The model could then later be expanded to include some additional variables or be adapted for other technologies, such as solar.
Wind Power Forecast Uncertainty in Daily Operation of Wind Park Combined with Storage
INESC Porto, Portugal
The inevitable wind power forecast errors result in differences between forecasted and observed wind power. To mitigate their economic impact, combining the wind power with pumped hydro energy storage may be used. In order to deliver a joint operational strategy for a wind power plant combined with storage, one requires reliable wind power forecasts. The forecasts commonly only consist of a single-value forecast (point forecast) for each look-ahead time. However, additional representative information concerning the forecast uncertainty may be required. In this paper, the influence of uncertainty representation daily operation for a wind power plant combined with pumped hydro storage is discussed. The paper illustrates how uncertainty representations such as Gaussian uncorrelated errors may also not be satisfactory. Based on a case study with a wind power plant combined with pumped hydro storage, organized for illustrative purposes, the paper demonstrates the need to have uncertainty representation including cross-period dependencies, in order to define a correct operation policy.
Additional Options for Eligible Electric Energy Producers
HEP ODS d.o.o.
Laws and regulations in Croatia stimulate eligible producers by means of an incentive tariff system for electric energy generation from renewable energy sources and cogenerations only if the energy is delivered to the network. That causes many problems in case of an “eligible producer who is also a consumer”.
The purpose of the article is to initiate an improvement of existing approach to eligible electricity producers. New approach should allow the eligible producer who is also a consumer, to get the incentive tariff for all produced electric energy, including for electric energy consumed on site.
Potentials of Renewable Energy Market in Serbia – Case of Wind and Solar Energy
University of Novi Sad, Serbia, Republic of
The paper gave a brief overview of different aspects of wind and solar energy application in Europe, Serbia and its northern autonomous province Vojvodina. Details of the wind and solar energy potential in Serbia/ Vojvodina are presented. The most perspective wind plant and solar PV plant sites are given in short.