Session 19: Demand-Side Management
Demand Response and Its Sensitivity to Participation Rates and Elasticities
1Comillas Pontifical University, Spain; 2European University Institute, Italy
Activating the demand-side of the electric system is a comeback of an old idea. What decades ago did not work out due to the lack of proper technology, today raises hopes to meliorate some of the most problematic situations in electric system operation such as ever higher peak demands and high wind generation during low demand periods. Smart grid infrastructures are currently implemented in many countries. This communication and control infrastructure allows consumers to receive information on system conditions, for example in the form of price signals, and thus to react to these and reduce, increase or shift their electricity consumption. This paper presents the modelling of demand shifting with two Demand Response mechanisms, Direct Load Control and Dynamic pricing. The outcome of both mechanisms depends, to a great extent, on two parameters: the maximum share of load which consumers are able and willing to shift and the elasticities used to express consumer’s level of responsiveness in the dynamic pricing mechanism. An analysis of the sensitivity of the impact of Demand Response is carried out by varying these two parameters over a large range. Results regarding demand participation shares, cost savings, demand variation patterns and used generation technologies are compared for the different sensitivity cases. We find that cost saving increases are not proportional to increments in the maximum share of participating demand and in responsiveness to prices.
A Dynamic Household Appliance Stock Model for Load Management Introduction Strategies
ETH Zurich, Switzerland
In this paper, the dynamics of the market introduction of new electric household appliances and their gradual propagation into the existing appliance stock is investigated. The focus of this study is the release of appliances that possess a certain new property, in the present case a communication interface for "Smart Grid" applications such as sophisticated Load Management methods. This question is particularly relevant for estimating the amount of installed Load Management compatible household appliances and the available Load Management potential in a given year in the future, which is essential for "Smart Grid" business model development and validation. Due to the relatively long life span of household appliances, it can be shown that it takes up to several decades to achieve a complete replacement of the conventional appliance stock in the absence of additional measures. The main focus of the paper is on the methodology and application of stock models describing the number of appliances "in the field" over time. Different approaches depending on the availability of input data are illustrated and the effect of additional measures, such as replacement incentives, is evaluated. Results are given for the Swiss market of refrigerators, freezers, and heat pumps.
A Systems Engineering Approach to Resolving Structural Barriers to the Implementation of Demand Response
1Loughborough University, United Kingdom; 2E.ON New Build & Technology Limited, United Kingdom
A principal mechanism for achieving the policy goal of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is the widespread electrification of transport and heating coupled with the parallel de-carbonization of electricity generation. This requires a major expansion of renewable generation (principally wind) together with new nuclear and clean fossil. This paper reviews both the policy position within the UK and the implications for system balancing that large-scale intermittent generation, such as wind, presents to the System Operator (SO). One proposal for helping to maintain system balance is the use of Demand Response (DR) by the SO. It is by no means clear whether the existing industrial structure can provide the right incentives for the realization of significant DR capacity. This paper presents a method of classifying barriers and describes experience in developing a Systems Engineering methodology, using the Systems Modelling Language (SysML), as an approach to modelling the structural and operational aspects of the British system with the objective of understanding barriers to the implementation of DR.
Energy Demand Elasticities: Empirical Evidence from Tunisia
Ecole polytechnique de Tunisie, Tunisia
This paper assesses the impact of prices on the consumption of different energies by using the demand function modelling for different sectors. We estimate short-run and longrun energy demand Elasticities based on annual data for 1977- 2004 observed in Tunisia. The energy demand is specified by a simple partial adjustment model. The econometrics results prove that the energy demand in Tunisia is generally quite sensitive not only to income but also to the prices of energy products. The price elasticity and the income elasticity of energy demand depend on usage and by product. These results imply that an increasing price policy will have no effect on the volume of consumption of energy but it will generate substitutions between different forms of energy.
Demand Side Management and Energy Markets in Developing Countries
Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey
Unbundling of the traditional utility service models to introduce competition to the electricity power sector has introduced several challenges to the policy makers and regulators both in the developed and developing countries. One of the recent challenges is the integration of demand side management programs that the electric power service providers are deploying to curtail the ever-increasing electricity demand into the competitive electricity market rules and protocols. This paper addresses this challenge in the developing countries in particular, as the demand for electric power is increasing much faster than the generation can built, thus, putting a strain on the growth of the economies and the investment funds available.
Securing Energy Supply by Harnessing Negajoules
University of Zagreb Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Croatia
Energy efficiency is often referred to as the best, cheapest and the least environmentally damaging source of energy supply. To prove this statement, the comparison of energy saving costs and costs of energy produced from new generating capacities has been performed. The results confirm energy efficiency as the most feasible energy supply option, which can significantly contribute to the improvement of the overall energy supply security in a country. However, despite these benefits and policy recognition of energy efficiency, vast potential of this new energy source, often referred as “negajoules”, is still untapped. The main reason behind this policy failure is only declarative and not real political commitment and a complete lack of focus on implementing capacities that would ensure full policy uptake.
Implementing DLMS/COSEM in Smart Meters
For some time now there have been initiatives (European SmartGrids, GridWise) to develop new visions of the future electric system – smart grid, triggered with the increasing demand for electricity and the drive for lower carbon generation, and made possible by new advances in technology. In order to deliver electric energy reliably and efficiently to end-users, smart system has to monitor and control demand appropriately. This can be done through the use of smart meters. However, for long there has been no unique and generally accepted protocol for delivery and interpretation of meter data, what has generated many problems and difficulties for both AMI system developers and utility distributors. DLMS/COSEM is widely accepted standard-based language for meter communication, whose main goal is interoperability among metering equipment. Although it is a well-defined protocol, integrating it into a meter sets new challenges in front of a developer like resources management and compatibility with current HW and SW platform.