Session 10: Smart Grid (2)
Evaluation and Assessment of Balancing Resources
1Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands, The; 2KEMA Consulting
The underlying philosophy while planning the operation of the power system used to be based on maintaining security margins. However, this approach with increasing fluctuating energy sources involves higher costs and leads to assets under-utilisation. The system was mainly built by creating the supply side and minor attention was paid in controlling the demand side. With the effort to accommodate larger shares of renewable energy sources, while continuously maintaining the power balance and ensuring the reliability of the power system, the implementation of demand response mechanisms may provide considerable options to reshape the demand profile for electrical energy. This study aims to create further knowledge on the potentials of residential demand response concepts, while focusing on the Netherlands.
Allocation and Integrated Configuration of Capacitor Banks and Voltage Regulators Considering Multi-Objective Variables in Smart Grid Distribution System.
Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil
The quality increased in power distribution systems along with the development of intelligent networks (Smart Grid), which enable the parameters control on electrical networks, represents a major challenge.
In this great intelligent network probably some equipment will be interfering in the performance of others, and operated by control systems, end up changing the voltage profile for customers.
Because this dynamic are developed techniques to voltage profile control, where allocation and configuration of capacitors banks and voltage regulators is powerful tool for this.
Optimization of Voltage Regulators Settings and Transformer Tap Zones in Distribution Systems with Great Load Variation Using Distribution Automation and the Smart Grids Initiatives
1Federal University Of Santa Maria, Brazil; 2State Company of Electrical Energy Distribution, Brazil; 3Certaja, Brazil
The efficiency, useful life and proper functioning of electrical devices directly depend on the quality of energy supplied. Moreover, the supply of energy within the adequate limits is necessary for the economic and social development in the regions served. Given these factors, in order to improve quality, ensure adequate voltage levels over the distribution networks, distribution companies invest in system improvements, voltage regulators, exchange of conductors and construction of new feeders and substations.
In this paper the authors intend to present a methodology that uses the potential of the smart grids applied to the increase of the efficiency of the voltage control in the distribution systems. It is intended to reach a better quality of the rendered services and consequently the customers' larger satisfaction.
Reducing Energy in Buildings by Using Building Automation Systems and Alternative Energy-Using Systems
Polytechnic University of Tirana, Albania
The paper reviews the literature concerning the energy savings achieved by installation of energy management systems and alternative energy-saving systems (such as alternative heating, ventilation, cooling, and lighting systems). Savings through enlightened occupant behaviour and operation of building systems are also discussed.
Implementation of energy management system and the reduction of need for mechanical heating and cooling equipment permit the reduction of buildings energy up to 50% and often entail no greater construction cost than conventional design.
The energy efficient solutions require an integrated design process, in which the building performance shall be optimized through an iterative process that involves all members of the design team from the beginning.
It should be highlighted that an energy management system is installed in a 21 floor building in Tirana. The total electrical energy footprint of the building is 135kWh/m2/year from 200kWh/m2/year that was before the installation of the system. It comes out that the result is in accordance with the energy efficiency goals of a lot of developed countries.
A Software Tool for the Optimal Planning and the Economic Evaluation of Residential Cogeneration Districts
1University of Bergamo, Italy; 2Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico - RSE S.p.A.
We present a decision support procedure for the configuration of distributed generation systems in residential districts, where various types of energy demands (electrical load, high and medium temperature thermal load, cooling load) have to be served. In the configuration process alternative solutions have to be compared, both from a technical and an economical point of view, taking into account the energy consumption profiles that vary along the day and along the year, due to the weather conditions. The decision support procedure consists of two steps. In the first step, by solving a mixed integer linear programming model, the annual optimal dispatch of the distributed generation system is determined with a hourly discretization, taking into account technical constraints, load profiles and fuel costs. The optimal dispatch is then used for the economic evaluation of the investment, taking into account prices of commodities, taxation and financial aspects (debt/equity). The decision support procedure allows to compare different alternative plant configurations; it can also be used as a simulation tool, for assessing the system sensitivity to variations of parameter values.
Integrated Energy Microgrids for Community-Scale Systems: Case Study Research in the Azores Islands
1Instituto Superior Técnico; 2Technische Universitt Darmstadt; 3Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Highly Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) greatly, but not solely, reliant on combined heat and power sources are a viable approach for dealing effectively with the new set of global problems which mankind is facing, such as Climate Change, Global Warming and Extreme Poverty. Current key technology for ICES are microgrids, capable of delivering sustainable electricity, heat and cold to small communities and of working in grid-connected or islanded mode, thus adding technical, economic, environmental and social benefits to the applied population environment. Due to the abovementioned reasons, one of the current leading topics on microgrid studies is the appropriate optimization modeling for the vital purposes of designing and analyzing these systems. Additionally the consideration of full broad spectrum of Sustainability is one of the challenges in microgrid planning. An overview of the current work in Portugal and in USA on the sustainability-sound technology choice and operation planning of integrated community-scale microgrids is done in this paper. Case-study in the Azores Archipelago is on the extent of a research project of the MIT Portugal Program, within the Green Islands flagship Project framework. Topics explored comprise objective function algorithm description, structure of the economic-environmental optimization model, case-study inputs description namely, technology database, data collection and analysis and economic environment, model general functioning explanation, scenario evaluation, interactions with battery storage and results analysis for assessment of economic and environmental cost considerations of microgrid introduction in the case-study project.