Session 02: Smart Grid (1)
Smart Grid Ready Concept
A.T. Kearney, Poland
The need for advanced technological solutions in the energy sector has become more important during the past few years. Most distribution system operators (DSOs) are seeking new paths to decrease grid losses and to gain more control over distribution assets. Many players are hoping that smart grids will revolutionize the energy sector and bring significant benefits to energy companies and customers. However, uncertainties in three areas are keeping companies from making major smart grid investments.
The Smart Grid Ready concept structures investments so that the final solutions are resistant to technological, regulatory and customer acceptance uncertainties. Additionally, the concept helps maintain the interoperability of completed solutions. This paper offers ways to address projects dealing with innovations and market disruptions. The approach has already been used to deploy advanced metering infrastructure.
LMP Triggered Real Time Demand Response Events
Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal
Recent changes in power systems mainly due to the substantial increase of distributed generation and to the operation in competitive environments has created new challenges to operation and planning. In this context, Virtual Power Players (VPP) can aggregate a diversity of players, namely generators and consumers, and a diversity of energy resources, including electricity generation based on several technologies, storage and demand response.
Demand response market implementation has been done in recent years. Several implementation models have been considered. An important characteristic of a demand response program is the trigger criterion. A program for which the event trigger depends on the Locational Marginal Price (LMP) used by the New England Independent System operator (ISO-NE) inspired the present paper.
This paper proposes a methodology to support VPP demand response programs management. The proposed method has been computationally implemented and its application is illustrated using a 32 bus network with intensive use of distributed generation. Results concerning the evaluation of the impact of using demand response events are also presented.
The Impact of Charging Strategies for Electric Vehicles on Power Distribution Networks
1IISM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany; 2Siemens AG, Germany
This work investigates four different generic charging strategies for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) with respect to their economic performance and their impact on the local power distribution network of a residential area in southern Germany. The charging strategies are Simple Charging (uncontrolled), Smart Charging (cost minimal), Vehicle to Grid Charging (V2G) and Heuristic V2G Charging. The simulation setting includes a high share of local renewable generation as well as typical residential load patterns to which different penetration levels of BEVs are added for the evaluation. Prices are determined on a regional energy market with agents representing the participating households (including PV generation and BEVs) as well as the traditional supply for the local power distribution network via the point of common coupling (PCC). Results show that Smart and V2G Charging lead to cost reductions for electric mobility of 40 % or 75% respectively per week and household. At the same time additional stress is put on the distribution network which shows a need for further coordination of BEV charging.
Operational Properties of a Photovoltaic System with Three Single Phase Inverters
1KONČAR - Electrical engineering Institute, Croatia; 2Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing
In recent years, there is an increasing number of photovoltaic systems connected to distribution networks, all over the world. It is to expect further increase in the future. This work focuses on analysis of a photovoltaic system with three singlephase inverters connected to the electric grid.
The work also presents Photovoltaic laboratory system in KONČAR-Electrical Engineering Institute, whose purpose is to compare the differences in energy production of three PV strings with and without tracking system. Financial analysis projects the return on investment, and cumulative gain for each of the strings separately. In addition to the economic viability the building of photovoltaic system has its value in terms of security of electricity production and the immeasurable value in preserving nature.
Photovoltaic systems often use single-phase inverters. The disadvantage of such systems is an asymmetrical unbalanced delivery of electricity to the distribution network. This means that the currents in individual lines are unbalanced which leads to the unbalanced three-phase power generation.
Influence of Variable Supply and Load Flexibility on Demand-Side Management
Etisalat BT Innovation Centre, Khalifa University
Demand-Side Management (DSM) refers to the shaping of the electrical load to improve the fit with the supply side. One way to achieve this is to confront the user with a dynamic financial incentive to influence the demand. In previous work a crude reactive pricing algorithm has been shown to shave the peak of the aggregated load by over 25%.
In this paper this approach is extended and evaluated in more detail. The algorithm is extended to cover scenarios where the supply is no longer fixed; its performance is investigated under varying conditions such as the percentage of the flexible load as well as the extent of the load’s flexibility. The expected benefit of applying the algorithm to real world scenarios is predicted, allowing for an informed decision on whether or not to employ it in specific situations and under which pricing conditions.
Intelligent Buildings in Smart Grid
1Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary; 2Ecotech Zrt.
The paper presents an intelligent building project, located in Dunaujvaros, Hungary, inside the campus of College of Dunaujvaros, which is intented to be connected to a locally set-up experimental Smart Grid. Recent years the reduction of global energy consumption and role of renewable and waste energy sources in power electric generation have been proposed and investigated as island or local grid connected power generation units. The power consumption and generation can be synchronized and balanced, producing lower power generation units that can be achieved by intelligent control systems. In industrial and commercial buildings, like households, most of the energy is distributed and utilized. The buildings equipped with intelligent sensor networks and controllers, called intelligent buildings, the electric and heat power can be utilized locally or supplied to the AC grid by applying generator units.
Specific Features of Excitation System of Different Distributed Power Plants
1KONCAR Electronics and Informatics, Croatia; 2RJESENJE PLUS, Croatia; 3University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Croatia
The paper describes through the examples the excitation system in small hydro and wind units with a synchronous generator. The specificities depending on its application are emphasized. The ability to minimize differences in hardware and software in order to achieve the universal product in terms of production, without losing the quality of a product is described.